We were walking in the prison of Akka, detached from what hath been created in the world of being and speaking forth in praise of the King of Names. Whereupon You commanded me to praise You with that which fulfilled the testimony of God to all others besides Him and manifested His proof to those in the heavens and the earth. When the irresistible summons came from the Eternal King, my limbs quaked for fear of God, the Help in Peril, the Almighty, the Most Powerful, the All-Knowing. I began to weep in such wise that all created things wailed and the daysprings of names cried out–this on account of the people I saw opposing him through whom the scriptures and tablets were adorned.
Baha’u’llah, April 1874, to Shams al-`Ulama in Nishapur
O Lord! At the time of revelation, you see my pen moving and my limbs trembling.
Baha’u’llah in a prayer for `Abdu’l-Baha
Both passages are quoted by Vahid Rafati in Kayfiyyat nuzul vahy, 14.
Endless are the planets for each fixed star, and each of these planets is but one of the worlds of the Creator. Who is able to number the hosts of your Lord on those planets or enumerate the crafts of His servants on them?
Baha’u’llah, quoted in Amr va Khalq, 1:137.
As for your question about moons in which you ask if the moons that circle around fixed suns through the power of attraction are creations like terrestrial creations, know that in the explicit text of the Qur’an God set forth a clear, sufficient statement that will delight the ears that hear it. He said: “…the creation of the heavens and the earth and the creatures that He scattered among them” (Q 42:29). He explicitly states that there are beings in them that move according to the divine Will. As for the specific character of those beings–whether they are like terrestrial beings, or airy, fiery beings, or fiery beings–their natures differ and the balance of their elements diverge. The composition of those beings differs according to their essences.
`Abdu’l-Baha, quoted in Amr va Khalq, 1:146
Your letter reached the Most Great Being, and the servant in attendance, on behalf of the Countenance, responds to what you have asked about the divine verses:
O Zayn! The short answer to what you asked about the verses is that changes have been preserved because in the early days, the grammatical rules of the people were never observed at the time of the revelation. Today, these rules are observed on account of wisdom. Therefore, if a tablet was recited before the Countenance previously, and he reveals in some places something different than what he revealed previously, this has to do with outer expression. In reality, both things that were revealed have been and will be correct.
In the Land of the Mystery, he had intended to reveal grammatical rules that are in the divine knowledge so that everyone would understand. He delayed on account of onrushing sorrows, continuous concerns, and successive tribulations.
On the occasions when most of the tablets were revealed, it was impossible to review them, and that which flowed from the pen of the servant attending the Countenance was dispersed near and far. Therefore, it is possible that in some cases there were omissions or additions and a little disappeared since no one is able to completely edit what is revealed at the time of revelation. Asking about these instances has been and will be beloved, although in the eyes of the Prisoner a new revelation is more beloved than referring to what was revealed previously. Referring to him (for a new revelation) has priority and is easiest, and he is the causer of causes.
Khadim Allah (Mirza Aqa Jan), on behalf of Baha’u’llah, to Zayn al-Muqarrabin. Amr va Khalq, 2:105-7.
As for the scribes and the differences between the manuscripts they prepared, this is what has shown forth from the horizon of elucidation in answer (to your question):
O Zayn! The verses of God were revealed in such manner that no one was able verify them at the time of their revelation and those that were revealed in Iraq and Adrianople were never reviewed. The servant attending the throne [Khadim Allah] is often able to look them over, according to his capacity. Nevertheless, he has been absentminded in some places, and what the scribes copy is frequently contradictory. The people’s condition is such that they do not know if those things that contradict (their grammatical rules) were revealed by the holy court or were a result of the inattention of the scribes.
It is known that what is revealed by the Truth is the truth, of which there is no doubt. However, since Jinab-i Nazir, upon him be the glory of God, wanted to publish some of (our) books, we commanded the Greater Branch [Muhammad `Ali] and the servant in attendance [Khadim Allah] to compare them and to report those things that contradicted (the grammatical rules of) the people since most humans have not and do not understand and are unaware of the process of revelation. On account of this review, souls did not perish, although “oppressors only increase in loss.”
The Surih-yi Haykal was revealed in the Land of Mystery and later renewed in that land. This is what has been recorded before. Verily, He is the Renewer, the Knower, the Informed.
Khadim Allah (Mirza Aqa Jan), on behalf of Baha’u’llah, in response to Zayn al-Muqarribin, Baha’u’llah’s most trusted scribe. Asrar al-athar, 4:92-3. “Jinab-i Nazir” is Hajji Mirza Abu al-Qasim Nazir, mentioned in Balyuzi’s King of Glory (396-8) and in Ali Kuli Khan’s pilgrim’s notes; the latter says Nazir worked with Muhammad `Ali against `Abdu’l-Baha (see the section on “Muhammad Ali in India”).
I plead my grief and my sorrow to God, the Lord of mankind. Things have been turned upside down and countries are in turmoil, which has weakened Islam. Its enemies have closed in on it and it is surrounded. It is incumbent on that community, therefore, to pray to God morning and eve and to beseech Him to lead the Muslims, one and all, to that which He loves and desires; to raise them up by His command and authority; to make them aware of that which will exalt their stations; and to exchange their humiliation for honor, their poverty for wealth, their ruin for prosperity, their turmoil for tranquility, and their fear for security and safety. Verily, He is the Merciful, and there is no God but Him, the Compassionate, the All Bountiful.
Baha’u’llah, August 18, 1882 (3 Shawwal 1299 AH). Excerpted in Mukhtarat min al-nusus al-baha’iyya fi bayan maqam Muhammad rasul Allah.
As for how the `Adliyya define `isma, their definition is the most appropriate. The gist of the correct part of their definition is that (`isma) is a divine disposition that prevents the act of disobeying and intending to do so while retaining the capability to do it.
The ma`sum abstains from all the things that God has prohibited.
Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa’i, Kitab al-`isma (Book of Infallibility), introduction. In the Baha’i writings, `isma is translated as “infallibility,” “sinlessness,” and “protection.” Ma`sum is a person characterized by `isma. The `Adliyya (“followers of justice”) are the Shia and the Mu`tazilites, who believe that God’s justice requires that humans act of their own volition and thus merit the resulting reward or punishment.
In Shaykh Ahmad’s book, the synonyms of disobeying (ma`siyya) are sin (dhanb), negligence (ghafla), venial sin (saghira), mortal sin (kabira), shortcoming (taqsir), and evil deed (sayyi’a). His synonyms for negligence (ghafla) are forgetfulness (nisyan), inattention (sahw), and error (khata’). All these words have to do with the morality of an action.
The final word, khata’, is found in `Abdu’l-Baha’s Will and Testament in reference to the Universal House of Justice as “the source of all good and freed from all error (khata’).”
While facing the sun on Friday, say this verse so that you will attain the presence of the sun of reality on the day of resurrection:
“Verily, the glory (al-baha’) of God be upon your rising, O rising sun! Testify to that which God hath testified of His Own Self: Verily, there is no God but Him, the Almighty, the Best-Beloved.”
The Bab, Arabic Bayan, 7:17.
Someone wants to know the secret of what was revealed to him that came before me regarding the sun and his standing while facing it. Blessed is the one who asked this question and wanted to know what was concealed from the hearts of the worlds. Say: I swear by God that what he meant by the sun is my beauty that has shown forth from behind the clouds with great lights. Because we made the sun to be the greatest of our signs between heaven and earth, he stood facing it, submissive to my Self, the Inaccessible, the Powerful, the Most High. When he rose facing it during the first part of his day, he spoke a word for which there is no loftier or greater in God’s knowledge, if you be of those who know. When he gazed upon it, he said, and his word is the truth, “Verily, The glory (al-baha’) of God be upon your rising, O rising sun! Testify to that which God hath testified of His Own Self: Verily, there is no God but Him, the Almighty, the Best-Beloved.” This was so that all would attain certain knowledge of the inmost secret through the appearance of the sun and testify to that which God has testified, that there is no God but Him, the Almighty, the Best-Beloved.
…He disclosed the Greatest Name so that everyone would bear witness on the day of revelation to what he had seen. This word is mentioned as one of the fundamentals of the divine commands revealed in the Bayan and each soul in this day must turn toward God on Friday and utter these words, calling to mind the beloved of the world.
Baha’u’llah, excerpted in Ma’idih-yi Asmani, 8:104-5.
He is the Most Glorious!
O Lord my God! Thou knowest that this servant is aflame with the fire of Thy love, dazed in the wilderness of longing for Thee, drawn onwards by the wondrous lights of Thy beauty, and making mention of Thee. Make him soar with the wings of holiness to the kingdom of Thy verses, aid him with the confirmations of Thine invisible spirit, give him to drink of the cup of eternity from Thy sanctified hands, and let him attain the radiance of the rays shining forth from Thy beauty. Verily, Thou art the Mighty and the Powerful.
Baha’u’llah, Ad`iyya Mubaraka, 60. For my friend, Gavin Welch, who died yesterday.
You have asked why these people have died, despite reciting supplications and reading prayers of healing for them. Know that these prayers and supplications for healing affect a contingent fate, not a fixed, irrevocable fate. Fate is of two kinds: contingent and irrevocable. An irrevocable fate cannot change or alter. If every sick person someone prays for were healed, no one would leave the elemental form and ascend from this world to the next to progress there because each time someone became sick, supplications would be made and he would be healed. This contradicts the divine and consummate wisdom. Rather, the purpose of asking for healing is to be protected from a contingent fate and to be guarded from a destiny that is not irrevocable. For example, notice that this lamp has a known amount of oil and when it is completely consumed, it will certainly go out. There will be no change or alteration. However, benevolent prayers and asking for healing is the glass that protects the lamp from contrary winds so it is not extinguished by a contingent fate.
`Abdu’l-Baha, excerpted in Muntakhabati az athar hazrat `Abdu’l-Baha, 3:20.
When Husayn b. Sayyab al-Basha was the governor of al-Ahsa’, the Arabs plotted against him. Muhammad Al `Uzayr came and (his men) surrounded the Basha, fighting the Ottomans. They seized al-Ahsa’ and Muhammad Al `Uzayr ruled it.
After he died, his son `Ali Al Muhammad ruled al-Ahsa’. His brother Dujayn Abu `Ar`ar killed him. The place where `Ali was killed is near `Ayn al-Hawar and he is buried there.
When I was around age five, if I passed his grave I would say to myself, “Where is your sovereignty? Where is your power? Where is your courage?”
When he was alive, according to what they say, he was the most courageous person of his time and the strongest physically. When I recalled his circumstances, I wept intensely for the changing circumstances of the world and for their shifts and reversals.
Such was my state. When I was with children, I played as they did. When I was alone, I contemplated and reflected.
Shaykh Ahmad al-Ahsa’i, Sira Dhatiyya (Autobiography). Excerpted in Shams Hajar, 39-40.